Natural Selection

Translated by William Ellery Leonard. The social implications of the theory of evolution by natural selection also became the source of continuing controversy.

Definition & Processes

Princeton University Press. Genetic variation and Genetic drift. Natural selection relies crucially on the idea of heredity, but developed before the basic concepts of genetics. There is variation in traits.

Definition & ProcessesNavigation menu

Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Princeton Science Library.

Math Playground

Self-Organization and Maximum Empower. Sexual selection Artificial selection Adaptation Misconceptions about natural selection Coevolution A case study of coevolution Microevolution Speciation Macroevolution The big issues. This occurs partly because random mutations arise in the genome of an individual organism, and offspring can inherit such mutations.

Natural Selection - Play it now at

Throughout the lives of the individuals, their genomes interact with their environments to cause variations in traits. Other factors affecting reproductive success include sexual selection now often included in natural selection and fecundity selection. For other uses, see Natural selection disambiguation. Poulton realized in that reproductive isolation could evolve through divergence, if each lineage acquired a different, incompatible allele of the same gene.

The result of this would be the formation of new species. Columbia University Press. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Selective sweeps occur when an allele becomes more common in a population as a result of positive selection. This unlimited applicability has been called universal Darwinism.

You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient. The more advantageous trait, brown coloration, which allows the beetle to have more offspring, becomes more common in the population.

Natural selection

Rudiment with Hidden Function? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society. The most straightforward way to study the function of a behaviour is to see how natural selection operates on it under current conditions by studying differential reproduction. Thank You for Your Contribution!

The concept of natural selection. Natural selection is one of the basic mechanisms of evolution, along with mutation, migration, super mario games for window xp and genetic drift. Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection. Disruptive selection can be a precursor to speciation. There is an ongoing debate over the degree to which group selection occurs in nature.

In contrast, K -selected species are strong competitors in crowded niches, and invest more heavily in much fewer offspring, each with a relatively high probability of surviving to adulthood. Evolutionary history of life Index of evolutionary biology articles Introduction Outline of evolution Timeline of evolution. Modified from Christiansen by adding survival selection in the reproductive phase. Natural Sexual Artificial Ecological.

Monographs in Behavior and Ecology. There is differential reproduction. The problem does not occur in allopatric speciation with geographically separated populations, which can diverge with different sets of mutations. This may be because both rely on a limited supply of a resource such as food, water, or territory. New England Journal of Medicine.

Selection has different effects on traits. Evolution often occurs as a consequence of this process. The fitness of a particular genotype corresponds to the average effect on all individuals with that genotype.

Darwin evolution & natural selection (article)

All such differences result in natural selection to the extent that they affect the number of progeny an organism leaves. Sexual selection typically proceeds via fecundity selection, sometimes at the expense of viability. The Internet Classics Archive. Cambridge University Press.

It is this genetic variation that underlies differences in phenotype. Self-Organisation and Selection in Evolution. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

According to this cellular Darwinism, random variation at the molecular level generates diversity in cell types whereas cell interactions impose a characteristic order on the developing embryo. Thank you for your feedback. This process can continue until the allele is eliminated from the population.

Math Playground

Natural Selection - Play it now at

There was a problem with your submission. This is called heterozygote advantage or over-dominance, of which the best-known example is the resistance to malaria in humans heterozygous for sickle-cell anaemia. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. The Quarterly Review of Biology.

Random genetic drift is a change that takes place from one generation to another by a process of pure chance. Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. Stabilizing selection acts to hold a trait at a stable optimum, and in the simplest case all deviations from this optimum are selectively disadvantageous. Gene frequencies tend to remain constant from generation to generation when disturbing factors are not present. Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus.